Let us ask the simple basic definition of what an investment is. Webster dictionary defines an investment as follows:
‘The action or process of investing money for profit or material result’
Economists define investment as follows:
“An investment is an asset or item acquired with the goal of generating income or appreciation. Appreciation refers to an increase in the value of an asset over time. When an individual purchases a good as an investment, the intent is not to consume the good but rather to use it in the future to create wealth.’
One buys a car for transportation. One can probably can pay the cost of the car and drive away. If one can’t do that then then one ca finance the car with minimal down payment or none at all. 4-5 years later breakdown starts and may not be drivable which is the main reason the car was bought to begin with.
As a matter of practice people don’t save money for maintenance. If the car is not drivable then you got a partial answer. Worse yet, one still owes money on it, with interest. That then is the rest of your answer.